22. ISO C Standard Consideration

Q 22.1

<execution-time action> to read or to modify the value of an object.
Note 1
Where only one of these two actions is meant, “read” or “modify” is used.
Note 2
“Modify” includes the case where the new value being stored is the same as the previous value.
Note 3
Expressions that are not evaluated do not access object.

requirement that objects of a particular type be located on storage boundaries with addresses that are particular multiples of a byte address

actual argument or actual parameter(deprecated). expression in the comma-separated list bounded by the parentheses in a function call expression, or a sequence of preprocessing tokens in the comma-separated list bounded by the parentheses in a function-like macro invocation.

external appeareance or action

implementation-defined behavior
unspecified behavior where each implementation documents how the choice is made.
An example of implementation-defined behavior is the propagation of the high-order bit when a signed integer is shifted right.

locale-specific behavior
behavior that depends on local conventions of nationality, culture, and language that each implementation documents.
An example of locale-specific behavior is whether the islower function returns true for characters other than the 26 lowercase Latin characters.

undefined behavior
Behavior, upon use of a nonportable or erroneous program construct or of erroneous data, for which this International Standard imposes no requirements.

Possible undefined behavior ranges from ignoring the situation completely with unpredictable results, to behaving during translation or program execution in a documented manner characteristic of the environment (with or without the issuance of a diagnostic message), to terminating a translation or execution (with the issuance of a diagnostic message).
An example of undefined behavior is the behavior on integer overflow.

unspecified behavior
Behavior where this International Standard provides two or more possibilities and imposes no further requirements on which is chosen in any instance.
An example of unspecified behavior is the order in which the arguments to a function are evaluated.

Unit of data storage in the execution environment large enough to hold an object that may have one of two values.
It need not be possible to express the address of each individual bit of an object.

addressable unit of data storage large enough to hold any member of the basic character set of the execution environment. NOTE 1 It is possible to express the address of each individual byte of an object uniquely. NOTE 2 A byte is composed of a contiguous sequence of bits, the number of which is implementation-defined. The least significant bit is called the low-order bit; the most significant bit is called the high-order bit.

<abstract> member of a set of elements used for the organization, control, or representation of data

single-byte character <C> $<$C$>$ bit representation that fits in a byte

multibyte character
sequence of one or more bytes representing a member of the extended chracter set of either the source or the execution environment.
The extended character set is a superset of the basic character set.

Seong-Kook Shin