- Q 22.1
to read or to modify the
value of an object.
- Note 1
- Where only one of these two actions is
meant, “read” or “modify” is used.
- Note 2
- “Modify” includes the case where the new value
being stored is the same as the previous value.
- Note 3
- Expressions that are not evaluated do not access
- requirement that objects of a particular type be
located on storage boundaries with addresses that are particular
multiples of a byte address
- actual argument or actual parameter(deprecated).
expression in the comma-separated list bounded by the parentheses
in a function call expression, or a sequence of preprocessing tokens in
the comma-separated list bounded by the parentheses in a function-like
- external appeareance or action
- implementation-defined behavior
- unspecified behavior where each implementation documents how the
choice is made.
- An example of implementation-defined behavior is
the propagation of the high-order bit when a signed
integer is shifted right.
- locale-specific behavior
- behavior that depends on local
conventions of nationality, culture, and language that each implementation
- An example of locale-specific behavior is whether
the islower function returns true for characters other than
the 26 lowercase Latin characters.
- undefined behavior
- Behavior, upon use of a nonportable or erroneous program construct or
of erroneous data, for which this International Standard imposes
- Possible undefined behavior ranges from ignoring
the situation completely with unpredictable results, to behaving
during translation or program execution in a documented manner
characteristic of the environment (with or without the issuance
of a diagnostic message), to terminating a translation or
execution (with the issuance of a diagnostic message).
- An example of undefined behavior is the behavior
on integer overflow.
- unspecified behavior
- Behavior where this International
Standard provides two or more possibilities and imposes no further
requirements on which is chosen in any instance.
- An example of unspecified behavior is the order
in which the arguments to a function are evaluated.
- Unit of data storage in the execution environment large enough to hold
an object that may have one of two values.
- It need not be possible to express the address of each individual
bit of an object.
- addressable unit of data storage large enough to hold any member of
the basic character set of the execution environment.
NOTE 1 It is possible to express the address of each individual byte of
an object uniquely.
NOTE 2 A byte is composed of a contiguous sequence of bits, the number of
which is implementation-defined. The least significant bit is called
the low-order bit; the most significant bit is called the
member of a set of elements used for the organization, control,
or representation of data
- single-byte character
> C bit representation that fits in a byte
- multibyte character
- sequence of one or more bytes representing a member of the extended
chracter set of either the source or the execution environment.
- The extended character set is a superset of the
basic character set.